By: Zander Brais Robotic Surgery
                    Benifits for the patients
The revolution of robotic surgery has brought many benefits to patients undergoing surgery
. These are classified into two main areas, namely “minimally invasive” and "Health" (da Vinci 2007).
In the area of “Minimally invasive”:

1)Improved cosmesis outcome (reduced intervention areas, less scaring, etc)
2)Fewer complications (da Vinci system 2004) such as less blood loss, less pain, etc
.

In the area of “Health”:

1)Shorter hospital stays
2)less patient morbidity
3)shorter convalescence for patients (after the hospital)
        a.fewer lost days from work (da Vinci system 2004)
        b.faster return to normal daily activities (jogging, biking, etc)

Studies indicate that in many cases patients have better clinical outcomes when compared to human surgery (da Vinci 2007)
.



                                 Types/protocols
Similarly to human surgeons, whom vary in nationality, character and personality, robotic surgeons come in different types as well. Namely (According to BMJ 2007), active, semi-active and passive.
Active
“Active” is defined (Dictionary.com) as “to be in a state of existence, progress, or motion.” Therefore, an active robot is one that actually moves (BMJ 2007). This category includes laparoscopic camera holders, telemanipulators, and robots used for burring out tissue. Stated by Harvard 2005, a few examples of active robots are the AESOP robotic system, the Da Vinci system and the Zeus system.
Passive
Opposite to active robots, a passive robot is not in motion. Dictionary.com, defines
passive as “to not participate readily or actively; inactive.” This category consists mainly of a robot to position a fixture appropriately and is then turned off. After the machine is off, the surgeon would insert his/her instruments and continue with the surgery (BMJ 2007). For example, a passive robot would be used to help position a device for guiding neurosurgical biopsy needles. 
Semi-active
Semi-active robots fall somewhere between active and passive robot.  This category consists of robots that require input from the surgeon to carry out power directed activity. The Acrobot robot is an example of such. This robot is a Prosthetic knee implantation system. (BMJ 2007)



Benefits & Types

     Name                            Type                                                                   Use
Zeus                   Master-slave telemanipulator         General, cardiothoracic, and gynaecological surgery (BMJ 2007)
Endoassist          Active camera                              MAS camera manipulation (synchronised to surgeon's head movements) (BMJ 2007)
Fips endoarm      Active camera                               Minimal access surgery camera manipulation (finger ring joystick controlled) (BMJ 2007)
AESOP              Active camera                                Minimal access surgery camera manipulation (voice controlled) (BMJ 2007)
Minerva               Active surgical                               Stereotactic neurosurgery (BMJ 2007)
Acrobot              Semi-active surgical (synergistic)     Prosthetic knee implantation (BMJ 2007)
CASPAR            Active surgical                               Prosthetic knee implantation (BMJ 2007)
Robodoc             Active surgical                               Prosthetic hip implantation (BMJ 2007)
Probot                Active surgical                               Resection of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BMJ 2007)
Inch-Worm          Active autonomous                        Colonoscopy (BMJ 2007)
Da Vinci             Master-slave telemanipulator           General, cardiothoracic, and gynaecological surgery (BMJ 2007)
A table listing numerous robots, their type, and their use.
uch_004592-1
Zseus
maquet2A