The purpose of this experimental analysis is to gain knowledge of the supercooled state of water and other
liquids; how it varies with different amounts and types of liquids, and its uses in our daily lives.
How do various outside temperatures change the effect that supercooling has on a bottle of water at varied volumes?
I believe that the lower the temperature, the higher percentage of the water will freeze after being supercooled, and a large amount
of water will more likely be frozen than a smaller amount. Distilled water is more likely to supercool than bottled water.
-Plastic water bottles without any scratches or deformations (smooth inside)
-Ozonated natural water 8-10 bottles (Presidentís Choice brand)
-Distilled tap water
-Smooth glass container
The outdoor temperature was verified to be below 0°C. To do this, a thermometer was placed outside for about 10 minutes. Eight bottles of water
were marked with an individual number for later reference. The amount of water in some bottles was varied partially. Then the amount of water
in each bottle was recorded with its corresponding bottle number. The bottles were then placed into the snow, without contacting each other.
The water bottles were left undisturbed for varying periods of time and the outside temperature recorded. Then, the bottles were removed from
the snow and placed on an even surface. They were opened and shaken until crystal formation occurred. The ratio of the crystals formed to the
remaining non-crystallized water was recorded. In cases where crystallization did not occur, a seed crystal was placed into the bottle. If the water
in the bottle was already frozen before taken out of the snow, then the bottle had been disturbed prior to the completion of the supercooling process.
This same process was repeated using additional water bottles and varying the amount of time they were left outside. A test bottle with an
opened lid was used to determine how much of the water would have frozen in a non-supercooling situation.
The manipulated variable in this project is outdoor temperature as well as the time spans. The amount of liquid in the bottles is also manipulated.
The responding variable is the amount of ice in each water bottle after it has been supercooled and crystallized and whether it has supercooled or not.
The temperature of the water after it crystallizes is also a responding variable.
The controlled variables in this experiment are: areas where bottles are placed, container, water type, time, and temperature measuring equipment.