Investigating Force and Motion

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Project Information

Abstract

Theoretical Backdrop

Experimental Design

Apparatus

Method

Experimental Data

Graphed Results

Interpretation

Conclusion

Key Learnings

Acknowledgements

Terms & Concepts

Bibliography

### Key Learnings

Findings of this experiment are of great significance as they provide scientifically proven explanations of what we experience in our daily lives as shown below. We learn that

The toy cars, though being of non-complicated design, move according to Newton's Laws of Motion. Laws of Motion are indeed "hidden laws of Nature."

Our cars or bikes stay on the road depending on WHEN (direction of force - natural or circular), HOW (flat or incline surface) and WHAT (type of surface) the rubber tires meet when they hit the road. An important lesson for us to bear in mind - the Young Drivers of Tomorrow! Skaters use the Laws of Motion to spin effortlessly on ice by holding their arms tightly together. When they want to change direction they extend a limb and slowly reduce the spin and start to move across instead of a circle. Coefficient of Static and Kinetic Friction and the interaction of Forces of Action and Reaction are carefully considered by NASA and space agencies worldwide when planning the lift-off from and re-entry of spacecraft into the earth's atmosphere.

Bombardier Canada, Boeing US and other leading aircraft manufacturers worldwide use these ratios in designing aircraft.

This experimental set-up clearly demonstrates to toy makers that Science can be fun and children can learn as they play. This experiment has put together this kit for toy manufacturers to build from.

Values of Coefficient of Static Friction and Coefficient of Kinetic Friction calculated for aluminum foil and different grades of sandpaper on rubber are of interest to designers of sports equipment. These numbers are ready data for designing even better yo-yos, roller blades, snowboards and other equipment.

Design of rides, roller coasters and scream machines in amusement parks is based on careful calculation of stopping distance of ride cars and friction. Findings of my experiment demonstrate the universal applicability of the Three Laws of Motion.

Results of this experiment successfully and clearly demonstrate that: The toy cars, though having non-complicated design, move according to Newton's Laws of Motion. Laws of Motion are indeed "hidden laws of Nature."

The Laws of Motion, discovered by Sir Issac Newton more than two hundred years ago, are applicable universally to all objects in motion even today. Newton's Laws of Motion chime with life's everyday experiences as they apply to macroscopic systems - things we can feel and see.

### A History of Two Centuries:

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) established the scientific laws that govern 99% or more of our everyday experiences - from how the Moon orbits the Earth and the planets orbit the Sun to how a hockey puck slides over ice, how a person rides a bicycle, or how a rocket launches a satellite into space or how automobiles run on different surfaces or how does a skater skate on ice and the functioning of roller coasters and bumper cars in amusement parks!

### An Entrepreneur's Landscape!

This experimental set-up clearly shows to toy makers that Science can be fun and children can learn as they play. This experiment has put together this kit for toy manufacturers to build from.

For designers of sports equipment, the findings are of great value as values of Coefficient of Static Friction and Coefficient of Kinetic Friction have been calculated for aluminum foil and different grades of sandpaper on rubber. These numbers are ready data for designing even better yo-yos, roller blades, snowboards and other equipment.

In a nutshell, this experiment provides wholesome well-balanced food for thought - for the scientist and the entrepreneur!

"Physics progresses not by revolutions, which do away with all that went before, but rather by evolutions, which exploit the best about what is already understood. Newton's laws will continue to be as true today, no matter what we discover at the frontiers of science."

- Lawrence M. Krauss, The Physics of Startrek